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Glossary of Footwear Definitions
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Abrasion Resistance - Ability of a footwear material to withstand wear out due to abrasion.

Abrasives - These are the materials like carborundum, emery paper or cloth and red flint used for buffing or scouring soles, heels etc, of footwear.

Acrobatic Shoe - Shoes for acrobatic works, made with extra light uppers and soles.

Albert - A men’s slipper style with a tongue like extension of the upper over the instep.

Alpargata - A Spanish or South American sandal-like shoe, usually with rope sole, attached to the foot by thongs.

Ammunition Boots - These are also known as Ankle Boots and are ankle high boots with six eyelets and full tongue. Made by riveted, screwed and stitched method for heavy duty purposes.

Antique Finish - Upper finished to give an impression of old and well cared leather by applying dressing to the upper and immediately removing the same except in edges and crevices.

Anti Static - Shoe with metal plug in sole to ensure static electricity is safely earthed to avoid sparks in areas where flammable gases are present or sudden electrical discharge could cause damage.

Appliqué - A strip or design fixed on a footwear for decorative purpose.

Arch - Part of foot plantar that does not touch the ground. Most commonly used of metatarsal arch.

Arch Cookie - A foam insert placed under the insole, designed to support the arch.

Arch Rocker - A patented design of AVIA used on some walking shoe models. It provides support to the small muscles of the foot, helping to prevent foot fatigue.

Arch Spring - The upward curve of the arch of a last or footwear.

Arch Support - Stiffening effect on the area of insole built up and strengthened to support arch of the foot, or similar support which can be inserted in the shoe separately.

Awl - A sharp-pointed tool with a small round handle, used by the upper leather clickers to make the prick holes for the convenience of the upper closer.

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B
Backer - Fabric material laminated or used to give reinforcement to weak material to give it strength and to help it stand up. The process of laminating such material is known as backing.

Back Splitting - Reduction of sole substance at the heel, seat and waist, mainly done for Louise Heel Construction.

Bagged Edge - A method of joining of the quarter top edge all round the ankle so that the seam joining the lining with the quarters is about 5 mm below the folded edge of the quarters so that no stitches can be seen on outside.

Ball Girth - The circumference of the foot around the middle of the big and small toe joints.

Ball Line - A line drawn across the widest portion of a foot or last.

Ballerina - Flat heeled (not more than one lift) pump, light weight, new-cut type shoes used by women and constructed by direct method of attachment and have similarity with ballet shoe.

Ballet Shoe - A Very light and flexible type of heelless shoe with heavily blocked toe made with upper of cloth (sometimes of satin) designed for ballet dancing.

Balmoral - A type of Gents' Shoe having a closed front-laced ankle. It is characterized by the vamp wings extended to both sides, to form a golosh.

Baseline - Last designed with standard bottom measurement to facilitate the design and manufacture of components to fit.

Basic Cutting Area - The area which includes pattern area and the unavoidable waste. The area between the patterns which can not be avoided when patterns are laid out together is termed as unavoidable waste. The space required by the patterns individually is the pattern area.

Beach Sandals - Simple sandals for beach (sea side) use, usually of rubber or plastic.

Beading - The turning in of edge of an upper section either skived or unskived. Sometimes the skived edge is turned over a cotton tape or tubular decoration for enhancing the appearance of the footwear and to give more strength at the edges.

Bed Lasting - An operation by which upper at the toe and seat is wiped to proper position on the Insole and kept in position either by cement, wire or tacks.

Bellows Tongue - A broad tongue in a lace up shoe which is stitched to the quarter at each side.

Belly - The underside of a hide or skin between fore and hind legs.

Benching - Final faking and fiddling to the shoes, after having passed through all the finishing operations, for any slight imperfection either in upper or bottom.

Bend - Sole leather made from the rear portion of a heavy cattle hide divided along the line of the backbone, after removal of bellies and shoulder.

Beveling - Reducing the substance of certain components of the shoe bottom by skiving such as Insole seat beveling.

Bifurcated Heel Pins - Round parallel shank pins used for stitching heels, made from screw wire which are without heads or points, but whose ends are bifurcated to increase their holding power.

Binding - Fabric tape or leather strip covering raw edges of leather round top line to hold outer and lining together and give a neat, durable finish. The covering of edges of the insole of ladies footwear with a strip of leather or fabric.

Blake Sewn Construction - Method of construction in which upper is directly attached to sole. The upper is lasted to the insole and the sole is then attached by vertical chain or locks stitched. In case of hand method the attachment is made by lock stitches only.

Blind Eyelets - Eyelets inserted and clenched on the lining, surface of the eyelet is not apparent on the outside of the footwear.

Blocked Toe - The toe of a footwear without any opening at the toe.

Blucher Bal Shoe - A Blucher Shoe in which the vamp is stitched overlapping the quarter.

Bontex Board - Brand of insole material of Bonded Fibers.

Boot - A type of shoe reaching above the ankle, often to the knee.

Bootee - A shoe having an upper extending slightly above the ankle, boot type, with warm lining, usually worn by women and children in cold weather. Designed for fashion and comfort, with upper of soft , flexible material.

Bottom Filler - The material normally cork sheet, leather board or leather, used to fill up the cavity formed by the lasted over margin of the upper and insole.

Bow - A decorative accessory for women's shoes sometimes on vamp or sometimes at the ends of the laces.

Boxing - The final operation in which the shoes are packed in boxes in pairs, ready to go out of the factory.

Box Toe - A stiffener used to maintain and reinforce the shape of shoe toe, preserve the toe room allowed within the shoe, and to protect the wearer's toes from blows. Metal Box Toes are used in some safety shoes.

Brannock - A foot size measuring device with a sliding gauge to measure fitting.

Brogue Shoe - A balamoral type of shoe, the upper comprising several parts with perforations and gimping along the margins, together with a punched and gimped wing cap. A brogue effect is often achieved in other styles of shoes by punching and gimping.

Buffing - The process of removing thin layer of grain side of sole or insole by use of abrasive to give it a finer look or to allow penetration of colour and prevent cracking.

Bunching - Terms referred to the bunching or depositing of bottom filling material at different places after shifting from its own place and forming humps and causing annoyance to the wearer.

Butted Seam - Seam produced by joining two components, edge to edge, by zigzag seam.

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C
Cack - Smallest soled shoe without heel and soft upper for infants. 

CAD (Computer Aided Design) - a shoe design is prepared on the screen of a computer. It is then put into the computer memory and can then be modified and sectional patterns produced and all grading completed.

Calfskin Leather - Leather made from the skin of young cattle. Soft, pliable, light and with few surface flaws. Among the highest quality of all leathers. 

Calking Machine - Appliance to depress or shape the inner sole to make it conform to the shape.

Cambrelle® - Camtex Fabric Limited's brand of nylon material used in the linings of shoes. Keeps the foot dry and comfortable. It is completely breathable and rapidly absorbs foot perspiration.

Canvas Boot or Shoe - Boots or Shoes of canvas upper and rubber bottom in which unvulcanised rubber sole is directly attached with the upper and then vulcanised. 

Cape - A very soft leather much used for comfort shoes. It is also used for gloves, and is often referred to as glove leather. 

Carbon Rubber - Rubber which has a high carbon content. Carbon rubber outsoles provide excellent durability but generally are heavier, less flexible and less cushioned than blown rubber outsoles. 

Casual Footwear - Footwear of light construction, suitable for casual wear which is easy to slip on without any fastening device. 

Celastic Toe-Puff - A hard toe-puff made of raised cotton cloth, impregnated with cellulose. Softening of toe-puff is done by dipping into solvent before insertion and quick lasting of the shoe is necessary after insertion. 

Cellulose Board - Top quality insole material made from alpha cellulose of the highest quality with a polymeric blend. 

Cement - A general term for adhesive material in footwear industry. Application of cement on roughened portion of the footwear is known as cementing. 

Cement Lasted - Method of lasting where the forepart upper is attached to the insole with adhesive instead of tacks. 

Cemented Construction - The method of construction in which the bonding of sole to the upper after securing to the insole is done by means of a glue (cement), usually heat and pressure activated. 

Channeling - The production of groove or channel in the leather in which the stitching is laid while attaching the sole and other parts. 

Chappal - Sandals without back straps. 

Chrome Tanned - Leather tanned solely with salts of chromium. 

Chukka Boot - Men’s low boot with cap less vamp and high cut quarters that cover the ankles. Normally with two holes for lace but not more than three eyelets are used. Also know as Jodhpur Boots. 

Circles - Horsed shoe shape oval or round tube let of steel, to be drawn into the heels of shoes to prevent undue wear. 

CLE - Council for leather Export.

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Clearance Pulls - Pulls given for clearing feather edges in lining, stiffeners, toe caps, etc., prior to fastening with tacks during lasting. 

Clicking - Traditional name for cutting out of the upper components of a shoe with the help of templates or clicking dies. 

Clicking Board - Board used for clicking of uppers, made up of plastics, timber blocks or any other suitable material. 

Clicking Knife, Hand - A knife with wooden or plastic handle with a metallic sleeve which is tightened by screwing the handle holding the blade, known as extension blade.

Clicking Knife, Press - A knife made of high speed steel to the shape of the component to be cut, used for clicking by machine. Also know as Clicking Dies. 

Climbing Boot - A strong, warm and waterproof boot with nails fitted at the bottom and round edge of the sole with a special type of staples. 

Closed front - The front of an oxford shoe or other men’s shoe style having the eyelet tabs stitched under the vamp (compare derby, oxford) 

Clogs - A low cut boot or shoe with heavy soles of wooden or cork and used for wet ground. 

Closing - Process of assembling cut components of the upper by stitching or other fastening method. 

Coated Fabric - Fabrics coated with PU, PVC or Rubber. 

Cobbler - Cack - Smallest soled shoe without heel and soft upper for infants. 

CAD (Computer Aided Design) - a shoe design is prepared on the screen of a computer. It is then put into the computer memory and can then be modified and sectional patterns produced and all grading completed. 

Calfskin Leather - Leather made from the skin of young cattle. Soft, pliable, light and with few surface flaws. Among the highest quality of all leathers. 

Calking Machine - Appliance to depress or shape the inner sole to make it conform to the shape. 

Cambrelle® - Camtex Fabric Limited's brand of nylon material used in the linings of shoes. Keeps the foot dry and comfortable. It is completely breathable and rapidly absorbs foot perspiration. 

Canvas Boot or Shoe - Boots or Shoes of canvas upper and rubber bottom in which unvulcanised rubber sole is directly attached with the upper and then vulcanised. 

Cape - A very soft leather much used for comfort shoes. It is also used for gloves, and is often referred to as glove leather. 

Carbon Rubber - Rubber which has a high carbon content. Carbon rubber outsoles provide excellent durability but generally are heavier, less flexible and less cushioned than blown rubber outsoles. 

Casual Footwear - Footwear of light construction, suitable for casual wear which is easy to slip on without any fastening device. 

Celastic Toe-Puff - A hard toe-puff made of raised cotton cloth, impregnated with cellulose. Softening of toe-puff is done by dipping into solvent before insertion and quick lasting of the shoe is necessary after insertion. 

Cellulose Board - Top quality insole material made from alpha cellulose of the highest quality with a polymeric blend. 

Cement - A general term for adhesive material in footwear industry. Application of cement on roughened portion of the footwear is known as cementing. 

Cement Lasted - Method of lasting where the forepart upper is attached to the insole with adhesive instead of tacks. 

Cemented Construction - The method of construction in which the bonding of sole to the upper after securing to the insole is done by means of a glue (cement), usually heat and pressure activated. 

Channeling - The production of groove or channel in the leather in which the stitching is laid while attaching the sole and other parts. 

Chappal - Sandals without back straps. 

Chrome Tanned - Leather tanned solely with salts of chromium. 

Chukka Boot - Men’s low boot with cap less vamp and high cut quarters that cover the ankles. Normally with two holes for lace but not more than three eyelets are used. Also know as Jodhpur Boots. 

Circles - Horsed shoe shape oval or round tube let of steel, to be drawn into the heels of shoes to prevent undue wear. 

CLE - Council for leather Export. 

Clearance Pulls - Pulls given for clearing feather edges in lining, stiffeners, toe caps, etc., prior to fastening with tacks during lasting. 

Clicking - Traditional name for cutting out of the upper components of a shoe with the help of templates or clicking dies. 

Clicking Board - Board used for clicking of uppers, made up of plastics, timber blocks or any other suitable material. 

Clicking Knife, Hand - A knife with wooden or plastic handle with a metallic sleeve which is tightened by screwing the handle holding the blade, known as extension blade.

Clicking Knife, Press - A knife made of high speed steel to the shape of the component to be cut, used for clicking by machine. Also know as Clicking Dies. 

Climbing Boot - A strong, warm and waterproof boot with nails fitted at the bottom and round edge of the sole with a special type of staples. 

Closed Front - The front of an oxford shoe or other men’s shoe style having the eyelet tabs stitched under the vamp (compare derby, oxford) 

Clogs - A low cut boot or shoe with heavy soles of wooden or cork and used for wet ground. 

Closing - Process of assembling cut components of the upper by stitching or other fastening method. 

Coated Fabric - Fabrics coated with PU, PVC or Rubber. 

Cobbler - A mender or maker of footwear. 

Collor - A stitched-on strip of leather around the outside of the top of the boot or shoe. Sometimes the collor is padded which provides for a more secure heel fit and helps prevent debris from entering the shoe. 

Colour Fastness - Resistance of the Colour of materials to the different agencies like light, water etc. to which these materials may be exposed during the manufacture and their subsequent use. 

Comb - The section of the last corresponding to the forepart of the foot immediately beneath the ankle. Shoe lasts are much thinner at this part than that of the foot and the hollowness in the comb assists in enabling the shoe quarters to grip the foot properly. 

Combat Boot - A special type of boot with high heel and eyelets up to the highest point worn now-a-days by wrestlers or army men and originally by Roman warriors. 

Composite Method - Riveted, stitched and screwed method of construction used for heavy boots. 

Congress Gaiter - An ankle high shoe with leather or cloth top adjusted to the ankle by a gusset or rubber. 

Construction - Attachment of upper to sole unit. Methods include: glued, glued and nailed, or glued and stitched. Generally, approach shoes and hiking shoes and boots are made with glued construction. 

Consumables - A term applied to those articles which are incidental or accessory to the manufacturer such as laces, polishes, creams, cements, waxes, buckles, heel plates, shoe brushes, insoles etc. Also termed as findings. 

Copper Toe - A copper boxing or lip used to protect the toe in the children shoes. 

Cordwainer - The very first trade guild started in the year 1087. 

Corrected Grain (CG) Leather - Leather from which the outer surface of grain has been removed more or less lightly by emery wheel. 

Corrective Footwear - Specially made footwear for defective foot to overcome abnormalities in the foot. 

Counter Point - A point on the back line of the last at a distance of one-fifth of the standard last length from the bottom edge of the last. It may also be lowered according to the changes in fashion. 

Cow Boy Boots - Long boots with high tops and high heels worn by western cow boys

Crepe - Natural rubber soling material made by drying latex from rubber tree. Very hard wearing and flexible, but slips on wet surface. Small pieces are used in finishing to remove marks on uppers. 

Crimping - Process of making folds or pleats in the whole cut uppers to facilitate lasting in Moccasin type of slippers.

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Cross Trainer - Refers to shoes designed to perform in a variety of functions to meet the needs of multi-sport challenges. Cross Training refers to the activities of an athlete that trains or exercises in a variety of sports. 

Cuban Heel - A type of heel 4-10 mm high with a straight breast, little or no curvature to back and sides, tapering very slightly to a fairly broad top-piece.A mender or maker of footwear. 

Collor - A stitched-on strip of leather around the outside of the top of the boot or shoe. Sometimes the collor is padded which provides for a more secure heel fit and helps prevent debris from entering the shoe. 

Colour Fastness - Resistance of the Colour of materials to the different agencies like light, water etc. to which these materials may be exposed during the manufacture and their subsequent use. 

Comb - The section of the last corresponding to the forepart of the foot immediately beneath the ankle. Shoe lasts are much thinner at this part than that of the foot and the hollowness in the comb assists in enabling the shoe quarters to grip the foot properly. 

Combat Boot - A special type of boot with high heel and eyelets up to the highest point worn now-a-days by wrestlers or army men and originally by Roman warriors. 

Composite Method - Riveted, stitched and screwed method of construction used for heavy boots. 

Congress Gaiter - An ankle high shoe with leather or cloth top adjusted to the ankle by a gusset or rubber. 

Construction - Attachment of upper to sole unit. Methods include: glued, glued and nailed, or glued and stitched. Generally, approach shoes and hiking shoes and boots are made with glued construction. 

Consumables - A term applied to those articles which are incidental or accessory to the manufacturer such as laces, polishes, creams, cements, waxes, buckles, heel plates, shoe brushes, insoles etc. Also termed as findings. 

Copper Toe - A copper boxing or lip used to protect the toe in the children shoes. 

Cordwainer - The very first trade guild started in the year 1087. 

Corrected Grain Leather - Leather from which the outer surface of grain has been removed more or less lightly by emery wheel. 

Corrective Footwear - Specially made footwear for defective foot to overcome abnormalities in the foot. 

Counter Point - A point on the back line of the last at a distance of one-fifth of the standard last length from the bottom edge of the last. It may also be lowered according to the changes in fashion. 

Cow Boy Boots - Long boots with high tops and high heels worn by western cow boys

Crepe - Natural rubber soling material made by drying latex from rubber tree. Very hard wearing and flexible, but slips on wet surface. Small pieces are used in finishing to remove marks on uppers. 

Crimping - Process of making folds or pleats in the whole cut uppers to facilitate lasting in Moccasin type of slippers.

Cross Trainer - Refers to shoes designed to perform in a variety of functions to meet the needs of multi-sport challenges. Cross Training refers to the activities of an athlete that trains or exercises in a variety of sports. 

Cuban Heel - A type of heel 4-10 mm high with a straight breast, little or no curvature to back and sides, tapering very slightly to a fairly broad top-piece.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Glossary of Footwear Terms, Footwear Definitions and Shoe Design