Online Shoe Shops for Men & Women Institutional Sales and Marketing Shoes for Retailers and dealer in India Shoes for exports

Pinza Footwear - Marketing for shoe industry

Home > Shoe Facts > Glossary : A - C , D - H , I - M , N - Z

Contact +91-11-64714006

Lower Body Pain Relief 120x240

Custom Search
Glossary of Footwear Definitions
Non Woven Fabric: Sheet material comprising fibres bonded together used as a reinforcement for shoe uppers.

Non Woven Insole Material: Made from synthetic fibres and bonded with the small proportion of synthetic rubber.

Nubuck: A chrome tanned leather usually calf or suede which is buffed on the grain side to give a nap surface.

Nap: Velvety surface of leather or cloth, soft velvety feel of the buffed leather.

Nylon Tape: Used for reinforcing lines and points of weaknesses, particularly straps and top lines. 

Orthotic: A corrective device made primarily of leather and/or plastic which is placed inside a shoe to correct biomechanical problems. Usually prescribed by a podiatrist.

Oxford Shoe: A man’s style with closed front, that is with the quarters stitched under the vamp. 

Outsole: The very bottom of the shoe, the part that contacts the ground. 

P2E: A thin corrugated metal plate used in golf shoes. Eliminates uncomfortable spike pressure by distributing it throughout the entire outsole. More comfort, improved performance.

Partial Cup sole: Same construction technique as a full cup sole except that the side wall does not extend the full length of the medial side. A partial cup sole is lighter and more flexible than a full cup sole; usually has an EVA insert. 

Patten or Clogs: Wooden or leather items in the shape of the sole of the shoe that were to be worn with. These shoes were then strapped on over the lighter shoes.

Permeability: The ability of a material to transmit water or water vapor through its thickness.

Plantar: The lower surface of the foot. Sometimes used to describe the insole.

Plasticiser: A chemical component included in PVC to make it flexible for use in soling. Cheap quality plasticisers have an oily character. They tend to migrate, which causes adhesion problems and changes in the character of the soling.

Platform: An extra component inserted between the insole and the outsole. Platforms are made of various materials like plastics, rubber, cork, wood etc. In some cases they are moulded in one piece with outsole and heel.

Pleating: Folding of upper leather to give a gathered effect. 

Polyethelene (PE): A synthetic polymer, composed of many ethylene monomer building blocks, used to make mid-sole and heel counters.

Polyurethane Upper Material: Thin sheet of expanded PU with a fabric backer. Usually used in women’s shoes, it has appearance and feel of leather. 

PU (Polyurethane): Synthetic soling material. It is flexible soft and light weight.

Pump Shoe: A low cut vamp lightweight shoe for dancing etc. are commonly known as court shoe.

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride): A synthetic plastic material widely used for soling and coated upper material.

PVC Coated Fabric: Upper material made of PVC and fabric backer.

No glossary available
Rand: A strip of leather or sometimes rubber composition, cemented to the margin of the sole projecting beyond the feather line.

Resin Rubber: A synthetic rubber soling material with some superficial resemblance to leather in appearance, finish and feel. It is a copolymer of styrene and butadiene, also known as SBR.

Rim: It is the part of the shoe the foot goes into. It holds the foot into the shoe providing lateral stability. Also known as the "collar" or "quarter". 

Rub off Finish: A secondary layer of finishing material applied to upper leather designed to be selectively rubbed off during shoe finishing to reveal the tighter primary finish, giving the shoe a hand made individual look. 

Reinforcement Tape: Used for reinforcing lines and points of weaknesses, particularly straps and top lines. Most of these tapes are made up of Nylon or other non stretchable fabrics.


Safety Boots and Shoes: Safety Shoes are shoes with some form of an added safety feature such as a steel or composite toe cap or slip resistant soles.

Safety Toe Caps: Protective toe cap fitted to safety footwear.

San Crispino Construction: A type of stitch-down construction. The upper material is flared outward, and wrapped around and under the edge of an extended insole board. The upper is stitched close to the last and cemented to the role.

Sandal: A simple type of shoe construction in which the sole is held on the foot by an open work upper of strips of material.

Seam Sealed: A polyurethane (PU) adhesive tape applied with pressure and heat along the seams to cover the stitch holes and edges for full garment waterproofing.

Seat: The part of the shoe immediately below the heel of the foot.

Semi Chrome Leather: Leather which has been tanned with vegetable tanning and then re-tanned with chromium salts.

Setting: A process of moistening and then drying by heat by which the lasted upper is fixed to the shape of last in a few minutes so that the last can be released for further use.

Shank: A strip of steel, fibre, wood or leather, inserted between the outsole and the insole at the waist to maintain the curvature of the sole and keep the heel from going under.

Shoe: Either of a pair of foot-coverings of leather, plastic, canvas etc., having a sturdy sole.

Shoe Tree: Wooden or Plastic device inserted in shoe when not being worn to help them keep their shape.

Shover: Removable piece of leather or other material attached to a last to add girth at that point only. 
Side: One half of the hide cut along the backbone. 

Skive: Operation in manufacture where edges of leather are trimmed down so that the edge is thinner than the body of the leather, thus reducing the thickness of seams. 

Skiver: Split leather used for linings and socks. 

Slip Lasted Construction: Sometime known as California Slip Lasted Construction. The upper is stitched to a sock which serves as an insole. The last is then forced in so that an outsole can be attached. 

Slipper: A light loose comfortable indoors shoe. 

Sock: A cover of leather or synthetic material cemented to the insole after the shoe is made to hide tacks or stitches and present a clean even appearance. 

Sole Leather: Leather used for soles of boots and shoes. Sole leather is generally made from thick hides such as those of buffalo or ox. Generally sole leather is vegetable tanned.

Softee Leather: General term used for soft and flexible leather.

Sole Attaching: Process of attaching sole to upper of shoe.

Solvent: General term applied to chemical such as acetone, spirit, MEK, Industrial methylated spirit and many others. 

Split Leather: When thick cattle hides are machine split to obtain two layers of leather. The bottom layer is referred to as the split layer. Generally thinner, lighter weight and used in lower-priced shoes or lining. 

Sprue: Same as Flash. Occurs in a moulded or vulcanized shoe. Excess PVC or rubber comes out where mould is joined has to be trim off. 

Stiffener: Usually of leather board or fiberboard, placed between the lining and upper material at the back of the shoe to improve shape retention of the quarters. 

Stitch-down Construction: The bottom edge of the upper is folded outward and stitched to the sole or insole. 

Straights: Shoes designed without distinction of right and left so that each can be used on either foot.

Suede Leather: Leathers in which the fibers on the flesh side are cut very short by means of buffing wheels so as to prevent a velvety appearance. 

Steel Toe Shoes: Steel Toe Shoes have a steel reinforcement in the toe to protect the foot against falling objects. Steel Toe Shoes also often have steel inserts in their soles to prevent puncture from below. 

Shoe Last: The form on which a shoe is constructed - resulting in the inside shape of the shoe. Lasts may be straight, curved or semi-curved. In construction, shoes may be board lasted, slip lasted or combo-lasted. 

Slip Resistant: Refers to an outsole that is designed to prevent slippage or skidding on most smooth surfaces. Also referred to as non-skid.

Tanning: A process to convert raw hide into leather by soaking in a liquid containing tannic acid or by the use of mineral salts etc. 

Texon®: A cellulose-based insole material that is more resistant to aging and dampness than leather insoles. 

Toe Cap: Protective piece added to the exterior of the toe of the shoe 

Toe Puff: A stiffener material inserted between outer and lining at toe to help to maintain the shape of the shoe's toe area within the shoe. It can be made of paper board, leather, plastic, or steel depending on the need for toe protection. 

Toe Spring: The upward curvature of the sole at forepart, relative to ground level, when the shoe is on a level surface. It is related to the stiffness of the sole and heel height. The more rigid the sole, the greater toe spring has to be provided. 

Top line: The edge of the upper round the throat of the shoe or boot. 

Top Piece/ Top Lift: The layer of leather of a heel which touches the ground. Generally synthetic materials are used, as this part of the shoe is subject to the maximum wear. 

Traction: Ability of a shoe to provide a sure grip on the surface for which it was designed. 

Tongue: Flap that starts at the vamp of the shoe and goes the length of the top of the shoe. It is padded to offer cushioning from the laces. 

TPR (Thermoplastic Rubber): A synthetic rubber related to resin-rubber or a blend of petroleum based synthetics that produce rubber-like qualities but which can be fused by heat and therefore processed into soles by injection moulding. 

Toe Box: The front area of the shoe that covers the toes. A toe box can be rounded, squared, tapered or pointy.

Upper: Portion of shoe which covers the upper surface of the foot. It can be made of variety of materials like leather, canvas, plastic, coated fabric etc. 

Upper Leather: Leather for making uppers of shoes and boots usually manufactured from calfskins, goatskins, cattle hides etc. 

Vamp: The part of upper between the toe cap and the quarters, including the toe in case of cap less styles. 

Vegetable Tanned Leather: Leathers which have been tanned with vegetable materials that are derived from certain plants and woods, often called "bark" tanning. This tanning process ensures that the leather won't stretch out after wear. 

Veldskoen: A strong suede or leather shoe or boot.

Vulcanized Construction: Construction in which rubber is heated in a mould to form the bottom of a shoe by the process of vulcanizing. 

Vulcanized Rubber: Raw rubber treated by milling with sulphur and heat to allow for moulding. 

Vibram: Special rubber compound that ensures high abrasion resistance and optimized grip. 


Waist: The section around the feet, last or shoe between ball and instep. 

Water Resistant Leather: Leather resistant to the penetration of water usually chrome tanned or combination tanned originally heavily greased but other water repelling agents may be used. 

Wedge Heel: A heel extended under the waist to the fore part, giving a flat surface in contact with the ground through out. Often combined with a platform. 

Welted Footwear: The sole is stitched to a welt, a strip of leather running around the feather of the shoe, which is also stitched to the upper. 

Welt: Strip of leather sewn onto insole to which sole is sewn. Shoes made by the welted construction can be easily resoled by removing the sole and re-stitching a fresh one as long as the welt lasts. 

Whole Cut Shoe: A shoe with the upper cut in one piece, closed by seaming at the back of the quarters. 

No glossary available
No glossary available
ZORI: A type of traditional Japanese footwear. The modern version is sometimes referred to as slippers, sandals, thongs, or flip-flops. In Hawaii, they are most commonly called zori. 


Home | Safety Shoes | Uniform Shoes | Policemen Shoes | Online Shop | Shop by Brand Reebok | Glossary | News | Profiles | Fair Calendar | Fashion & Trends | Women's Salwar Suit  Dress Material

Custom Search

Pinza Footwear Institutional Sales - Uniform and Safety Shoes for Police Departments, Defence Forces, Industries, Corporate and other Institutions at PinzaShoes.Com


Pinza Footwear
100 DSIDC Complex
Bapu Park, Kotla Mubarakpur
New Delhi - 110003, INDIA
T.+91-11-64714006  F.+91-11-24635464

Glossary of Footwear Terms, Footwear Definitions and Shoe Design